Welding in course of with view of robotic welder.

All images courtesy Lincoln Electrical

Producers are underneath fixed stress to ship prototype, manufacturing, and alternative elements at an ever-quickening tempo, all whereas sustaining high quality. Wire-based metallic additive manufacturing (AM) expertise might help producers meet this problem whereas:

  • Decreasing lead occasions from months to weeks
  • Rising design freedom, half consolidation
  • Rushing prototype testing
  • Mild-weighting elements, reducing waste

Cleveland, Ohio-based Lincoln Electrical, identified for its arc-welding and slicing merchandise and automatic methods is on the forefront of AM, leveraging its in-house expertise, supplies, automation, and software program to supply giant, advanced metallic elements.

With a background in protection aerospace, Michael (Mike) S. Wangelin, enterprise improvement and gross sales supervisor for Lincoln Electrical Additive Options, who additionally represents Lincoln Electrical subsidiary Baker Industries, Macomb, Michigan, spoke about improvements just lately with Aerospace Manufacturing & Design (AM&D).

AM&D: What are the advances in wire-based AM?

Mike Wangelin (MW): Wire-based AM is mainly taking a complicated fuel metallic arc welding (GMAW) energy supply, an industrial robotic, and software program that mixes the robotic’s movement with a multi-axis positioner to put down successive weld beads to create a free-form 3D form. It differs from metallic powder-based AM in that the expertise permits a bigger construct and isn’t restricted to a construct chamber. The one limitation is the motion of the robotic or the cell used for the construct. We’re at present working with a 4ft x 6ft x 6ft construct quantity and may develop that as wanted. No particular setting is required, it’s simply enclosed for fume assortment with a localized shielding fuel.

AM&D: What frequent industrial manufacturing challenges can AM resolve?

MW: Prototyping in polymers or plastics can take an idea to a bodily object in a short while, but it surely’s not consultant of the particular half in energy or weight, so it’s restricted to demonstration functions, not purposeful testing. With our course of, the energy would carefully match or be the identical as manufacturing. By initially prototyping with metallic you will get to the purpose of what’s in manufacturing, whereas with polymers you’re restricted to a conceptual object. Steel is a greater match, nearer to the top product.

AM&D: What alternative elements are you able to print on demand?

MW: Components years out of manufacturing, typically outlined by paper 2D drawings, are troublesome to breed within the present manufacturing setting. You possibly can scan a component, capturing it digitally as an as-built object and recreate it rapidly with 3D printing. Wire AM has higher floor variation than machined or solid surfaces – it’s near-net form, so extra materials could should be faraway from important areas, however not essentially totally, saving time.

AM&D: What’s completely different about Lincoln Electrical’s in-house expertise?

MW: There are lots of 3D printing service suppliers in polymers and metallic, many utilizing off-the-shelf gear and supplies, so that they’re restricted to creating objects with what’s commercially obtainable. What’s completely different about Lincoln Electrical is that we’re in charge of the whole course of from begin to end, so we manufacture the facility sources, welding gear, and our personal wire feedstock. Lincoln Electrical has a long time of expertise in superior automation and in addition owns and develops the software program that takes the 3D mannequin, creates the constructing routine, and controls the robotic and positioner. Each piece, from startup design to completion of the product, is inside Lincoln Electrical’s management. Having the facility of the big Lincoln company, we’re capable of put money into every superior expertise phase alongside the best way, driving the entire course of.

Accomplished, machined Invar instrument.

AM&D: What software program has been developed?

MW: One key piece of creating the 3D-printing options group inside Lincoln Electrical was having the software program that sliced the 3D mannequin to arrange it for 3D printing, generate the deposition instrument path, and management the system. So, the corporate has taken software program initially developed for advanced 5-axis NC machining and tailored it to AM, a product referred to as SculptPrintTM. Having the software program owned by Lincoln Electrical presents us the benefit to continuously make modifications to the software program as we study concerning the course of and acquire efficiencies with it, so there’s no delay between figuring out points and making modifications, the place with third-party software program, you’re working behind in making these developments.

AM&D: What supplies are you utilizing?

MW: We’re at present printing metal, high-strength low-alloy metal, stainless-steel, Inconel, bronze, and just lately with Invar, a nickel-based alloy that has turn into the fabric of alternative for aerospace composite cure-tools as a result of its coefficient of thermal enlargement matches the elements being produced. As well as, Invar has sturdiness and put on advantages.

AM&D: What are the biggest elements you possibly can produce?

MW: Principally, a 5ft dice, but it surely’s part- dependent. If narrower, we are able to print as much as 9ft – restricted solely by the robotic’s attain. We may use a bigger robotic or pedestal to lift the robotic if the necessity arises to transcend our present construct quantity. A few initiatives we’re engaged on are 14ft lengthy. We’re printing 4ft to 5ft segments vertically and becoming a member of the segments, welded collectively post-printing. Printing shorter segments additionally shortens the cycle time.

AM&D: What are the advantages of manufacturing tooling with metallic AM?

MW: As elements turn into extra advanced, lead occasions and prices begin to come down with AM. Tooling is the final merchandise wanted earlier than a manufacturing run, so there’s all the time schedule stress to supply the tooling as rapidly as potential, and we see this as our benefit, as we are able to lower cycle and supply occasions, particularly for advanced instruments.

AM&D: What are some examples of advanced instruments?

MW: Something with excessive curvature corresponding to inlet ducts, exterior skins with intricate contour shapes, a number of angles, or bends. Historically, you possibly can type instruments from plate inventory with bumping and forming blacksmithing expertise or machine it from a billet. With our wire additive, we are able to rotate the half, and the robotic movement allows you to construct a fancy half and not using a help construction. It’s well-choreographed to manage robotic movement and torch angle whereas rotating and spinning the positioner holding the half. A number of items of kit are rotating, all programmed with SculptPrintTM software program.

Shut-up of the weld stack in an aerospace composite instrument.

AM&D: How is Lincoln Electrical providing AM providers?

MW: Lincoln Electrical is promoting the metallic AM 3D-printing service as a print bureau, utilizing a devoted 75,000ft2 facility in Cleveland, which at present has 18 manufacturing cells. We’re working with Baker Industries, which makes use of its 35 3- and 5-axis CNC facilities for machining, prototyping, or tooling, or we offer a print for purchasers to machine from near-net.

AM&D: How does the service work?

MW: A buyer comes with the stable mannequin and prints of a completed half or a instrument to supply, giving us the parameters. We are able to design to necessities or use a accomplished design or a variation between the 2. Or deliver us an current design of a product you’re attempting to supply. We’ll construct to print or we are able to redesign it for AM, providing alternate options to cut back time or value. Or deliver us an current half, the place tooling or drawings now not exist.

Baker Industries, A Lincoln Electrical firm

Lincoln Electric Additive Solutions

Concerning the writer: Eric Brothers is senior editor for Aerospace Manufacturing & Design. He will be reached at 216.393.0228 or ebrothers@gie.net.



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